Explore the power of inheritance with this effortless Online Dihybrid Cross Calculator. Simply select two different traits for each parent and uncover the probability of gene inheritance in the form of genotype-phenotype ratios alongside detailed Punnett squares in an instant.

A,B - Dominant Alleles | a,b - Recessive Alleles

Frequency & Percentage Table


Punnett Square


Dihybrid Cross Calculator – For whom is it useful?

This online dihybrid cross calculator tool was basically created for my biology/genetics students. The motive in mind was to let them easily calculate Dihybrid crosses.  They can use this to do dihybrid cross and compare it with their homework assignment and consider rectification if there’s something they are doing wrong. It can also be used to speed up their assigned task. This can save their time to focus on other parts of the study as this will do dihybrid cross & Punnett square in a second. While doing the same by-hand will take not less than an hour.

Yet, the website is open for everyone unless and until one have basic knowledge of genetics and came across a problem to find out the probability of gene inheritance to offspring in a scenario that you have to take two traits from each parent under consideration.

Using Dihybrid Punnett Square Calculator in Correct Way

In the first place, I’ve built this tiny, but mighty tool for my students’ ease and after launching the website and testing the tool from many angles to confirm that it is upto the mark. Further, I have already had a presentation on the correct way of using the calculator. Took the students to computer lab in order to access the website and the calculator inside it. Living to my expectations, in a very short time, they confirmed me a few things:

  • Website and the tool inside is up and fine.
  • Students could use it in the right way with ease.
  • The calculator gave them same results comparing with their by-hand calculations.

I knew the students will share this with peers in junior classes or through social media, who hasn’t attended the introductory session. I feel it’s essential to give a quick walk-through and guide so that one can use it in its correct way in order to obtain accurate results and not to be misguided.

Follow the steps below to accurately solve your problem of finding two-traits crosses using this website.

  1. Once you land on this website, on first sight, at the left-top corner is the entry box of the calculator where you’ll have to select 4 alleles, two for each parent (Mother and Father). As each trait have two alleles which can occur in three possible ways (AA, Aa and aa) where: ‘AA’ means both alleles are dominant. ‘Aa’ means one of two is dominant while ‘aa’ means both alleles are recessive.
  2. Select traits for each parent and each trait using the drop-down list. Double-check your selection to confirm you have chosen the right alleles from the list.

dihybrid cross

3. As you select the alleles from the drop-down lists, scroll down a bit, and you will see the comprehensive results. You’ll see a genotype and phenotype table along with their counts and percentages as can be seen in the following screenshot.

frequency table4. Bhhh! You get your result based on selected information in micro-seconds.



The developer team tried to their fullest in order to bring about a tool designed in a way that user gets results for their inputs swiftly and within seconds. The drop-down selection will let user feel comfortable in selecting right alleles.


Before launching the website we have done proper beta testing through various experts in the biological and mathematical field. The objective was to check various sets of problems and verify the result with the one they’ve got by-hand calculations. We assure the calculator will give you 100% accurate result.


We provide a simple and minimal interface to the users so that the user don’t even have to scroll down to get to the calculator. It is paced right at the top. For further understandings and details we have provided almost everything needful.


Once you click on “Calculate” button,   it generates not just genotype-phenotype ratios but also visually informative Punnett squares, aiding in a better understanding of inheritance patterns.

Know More about 2 traits Dihybrid Cross

A dihybrid cross is a fundamental concept in genetics that delves into the simultaneous inheritance of two distinct traits, each governed by a different sets of genes. It builds upon the work of a great Biologist Gregor Mendel (1822-1844) which was on the principles of inheritance and is essential for understanding how genetic diversity and combinations of traits arise within populations.  To grasp the intricacies of this, it is crucial to comprehend Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, as well as their practical applications.

  1. Law of Segregation: Mendel’s first law postulates that each individual possesses two alleles for a given gene, one inherited from each parent. During the formation of gametes (sperm and egg cells), these alleles segregate, ensuring that each gamete carries only one allele for a particular gene. This process results in genetic diversity among offspring.
  2. Law of Independent Assortment: Mendel’s second law asserts that the alleles for different genes segregate independently during gamete formation. In other words, the inheritance of one trait is not dependent on the inheritance of another trait. This principle lays the foundation for dihybrid crosses, which consider the inheritance of two traits simultaneously.

To better understand, let’s take a look at a practical example:

Consider pea plants, a species famously studied by Gregor Mendel. Pea plants exhibit two traits, seed colour and seed shape. Seed color can be either yellow (dominant, denoted as “A”) or green (recessive, denoted as “a”). Seed shape can be either round (dominant, denoted by “B”) or wrinkled (recessive, denoted by “b”). Note that here we will take only two traits in dihybrid corsses, it is possible that one may be interested in crosses of 3 which eventually is called trihybrid cross you can read more about it here later and continue reading this to know more about the current topic.

In a dihybrid cross, we investigate the inheritance of both seed color and seed shape. By applying the Law of Independent Assortment, we’d examine all possible combinations of alleles from each parent, that are,

→ Parent 1: AABB (Yellow color, Round shape)

→ Parent 2: aabb (Green color, Wrinkled shape)

When you cross these two parental plants, you would create a 4×4 Punnett square to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. The square would reveal all possible combinations which will be 16 in total in our case of dihybrid. As an example, we explain a few possible results to get a quick overview for your understanding.

‏⇒ AABB: These offspring have both dominant alleles for seed color (yellow) and seed shape (round). Therefore, they will have yellow, round seeds. 
⇒ Aabb: These offspring have one dominant allele for seed color (yellow) and two recessive alleles for seed shape (wrinkled). They will have yellow seeds but with a wrinkled shape.
⇒ aaBb: These offspring have two recessive alleles for seed color (green) and one dominant allele for seed shape (round). They will have green seeds with a round shape.
⇒ aabb: These offspring have two recessive alleles for both seed color (green) and seed shape (wrinkled). They will have green seeds with a wrinkled shape.

Two-factor cross-overs provide a deeper insight into the complexity of genetic inheritance, demonstrating how genes governing different traits interact and assort independently. By examining the practical applications of these crosses, scientists and geneticists can unravel the genetic diversity observed in various species, including humans.

What is a dihybrid Punnett Square

As we have mentioned earlier, our dihybrid cross online calculator will not only give you offspring genotype and phenotype frequency ratios, but will also make a detailed punnett square for the alleles you have selected, which means this website can also be used if you are looking for a Punnett square generator. In case you want to know in detail about this, here’s a quick guide for you.

The Punnett square is a visual tool used in genetics to predict the possible genetic outcomes of a cross between two individuals. It allows us to determine the genotypes and phenotypes of offspring resulting from the combination of parental alleles.

For a dihybrid cross, a 4×4 Punnett square is typically used. This square considers the four possible combinations of alleles from each parent, as each parent can contribute one of two alleles for each of the two traits being examined.

FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions:

1. What’s the difference between Monohybrid and Dihybrid Cross?
The difference between a monohybrid and dihybrid cross lies in the number of traits we consider to investigate and estimate the probability of appearance of character(s) in resulting offspring.

Monohybrid cross occurs when we are interested in investigating two parent’s expected offspring based on a single trait. While Dihybrid cross occurs when we are interested in investigating two traits simultaneously.

2. Differentiate between Homozygous and Heterozygous.

An organism’s cell that carries two identical alleles of a particular gene is known as Homozogous. While Heterozygous is when the alleles differ.

3. What are Genotype and Phenotype?

Genotype pertains to the genetic composition (allele combinations) of an organism, while phenotype refers to the observable traits resulting from the interaction between an organism’s genotype and its environment.

4. Can we get Dihybrid worksheet from this calculator?

In case you need the calculated genotype-phenotype ratios in excel worksheet or even the Punnett square for further processing. You can do so in following steps.

  1. Select the table you want to keep in excel sheet.
  2.  Right click highlighted text and copy the content.
  3. Open a worksheet where you want to place and paste using CTRL+C button.
  4. Done! You have got it as a worksheet.

5. What is foil method in dihybrid cross?

 In practice, foil method is the easiest way to find out the potential gamete combinations in a 2×2 cross that are not sex-linked. FOIL stands for First-Outside-Inside-Last.
For example, to calculate a dihybrid cross using foil method: we have genotypes say YyRr. We will get possible combinations as:
YR | Yr | yR | yr.

As you can see, we paired the first allele of 2nd parent with the first allele to make a combination, we then paired second allele of the 2nd parent to make another combination which is outside in all fours. We did the same for the second allele of the first parent to make last two combinations.